THE OFFICIAL LETTERS AND MESSAGES OF EX PRES. HO CHI MINH
NHỮNG BỨC THƯ CỦA HAI CẤP LÃNH ĐẠO VIỆT MỸ TRONG LỊCH SỬ CHIẾN TRANH VN
Sơ Lược LS Cuộc Chiến Tranh ở Việt Nam
Lãnh Tụ Hồ Chí Minh, Ộng sinh ngày 19 May 1890 – mất ngày 2 September 1969. và ông có nhiều tên khác như Nguyễn Sinh Cung, Nguyễn Tất Thành, và Nguyễn Ái Quốc thay đổi theo giai đoạn hoạt động Cách Mạng của Đàng Việt Minh, sau này đổi thành Đảng Cộng Sản Việt Nam. Trong thới gian chống Pháp, khi Ông làm Chủ Tịch Nước Việt Nam Dân Chủ Cộng Hòa, lúc này bao gồm cả Phe Quốc Gia và một số Đảng Phái khác trong nước. Ông có viết những Bức Thư cho một số Tổng Thống Mỹ, như ông Truman, ông Nixon, trước khi Quân Đội Nhân Dân của Miền Bắc tiến chiếm Miền Nam, lúc này là VNCH đệ nhị. Chg Tôi xin trích đăng những Bức Thư này trong đây và vài Trích Đoạn liên quan về Ông. Xin mơi Quý Độc Giả đọc xem chi tiết ở Phần Tham Khảo của chúng tôi. Mục Đích trong bài này là trình bầy Lá Thư của Chủ Tịch Hồ mà mới đây CT Trương Tấn Sang trao cho TT B. Obama nhân chuyến Viếng Thăm Hoa Kỳ theo lời mời của TT. B. Obama Mỹ.
Trích Đoạn a: Mr. Ho was a Vietnamese communist revolutionary leader who was prime minister (1945–1955) and president (1945–1969) of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam). He was a key figure in the foundation of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945, as well as the People’s Army of Vietnam (PAVN) and the Việt Cộng (NLF or VC) during the Vietnam War. He led the Việt Minh independence movement from 1941 onward, establishing the communist-ruled Democratic Republic of Vietnam in 1945 and defeating the French Union in 1954 at the battle of Điện Biên Phủ. He officially stepped down from power in 1965 due to health problems, but remained a highly visible figurehead and inspiration for those Vietnamese fighting for his cause—a united, communist Vietnam—until his death. After the war, Saigon, the former capital of South Vietnam, was renamed Hồ Chí Minh City.
The 1954 Geneva Accords, concluded between France and the Viet Minh, provided Vietminh forces would regroup in the North and the anti-communist & pro-democracy forces regroup in the South. Ho’s Democratic Republic of Vietnam relocated to Hanoi and became the government of North Vietnam, a communist-led single party state.
Following the Geneva Accords, there was to be a 300-day period in which people could freely move between the two regions of Vietnam, later known as South Vietnam and North Vietnam. More than 1 million North Vietnamese people fled to the South, while a much smaller number moved North. It is estimated that as many as two million more would have left had they not been stopped by the Viet Minh. Neither the United States government nor Ngo Dinh Diem’s State of Vietnam signed anything at the 1954 Geneva Conference. With respect to the question of reunification, the non-communist Vietnamese delegation objected strenuously to any division of Vietnam, but lost out when the French accepted the proposal of Viet Minh delegate Pham Van Dong, who proposed that Vietnam eventually be united by elections under the supervision of “local commissions”. The United States countered with what became known as the “American Plan,” with the support of South Vietnam and the United Kingdom. It provided for unification elections under the supervision of the United Nations, but was rejected by the Soviet delegation and North Vietnamese.]
As fighting escalated, widespread aerial and artillery bombardment all over North Vietnam by the U.S. Air Force and Navy begin with Operation Rolling Thunder. In July 1967, Ho and most of the Politburo of Workers Party of Vietnam met in a high profile conference where they all concluded the war had fallen into a stalemate, since the United States Army presence forced the People’s Army of Vietnam to expend the majority of their resources maintaining the Hochiminh Trail instead of reinforcing their comrade’s ranks in the South. With Ho’s permission, the Viet Cong planned to execute the Tet Offensive to begin on 31 January 1968, gambling on taking the South by force and defeating the U.S. military. The offensive came at great cost and with heavy casualties on NLF’s political branches and armed forces. It appeared to Ho and to the rest of his government that the scope of the action had shocked the world, which had up until then been assured that the Communists were “on the ropes”. The overly positive spin that the U.S. military had been attempting to achieve for years came crashing down. The bombing of Northern Vietnam and Ho Chi Minh trail was halted, and U.S and Vietnamese negotiators began to discuss how to end the war. From then on, Ho and his government’s strategy, based on the idea of “avoiding conventional warfare and facing the might of the U.S. Army, which would wear them down eventually, while merely prolonging the conflict would lead to eventual acceptance of Hanoi’s terms” materialized.
Ho remained in Hanoi during his final years, demanding the unconditional withdrawal of all non-Vietnamese troops in South Vietnam. By 1969, with negotiations still dragging on, Ho’s health began to deteriorate from multiple health problems, including diabetes which prevented him from participating in further active politics. However, he insisted that his forces in the south continue fighting until all of Vietnam was reunited under his regime regardless of the length of time that it might take, believing that time was on his side.
b. Lá Thư thứ nhất của CT Hồ gửi cho TT Truman của Hoa Kỳ ngày 28 tháng 2 năm 1946:
c. Messages to America: The Letters of Ho Chi Minh
Who was Ho Chi Minh? Born in 1890 in Vietnam under French colonialism to a committed nationalist father, Ho Chi Minh would grow up to lead not one, but two successful wars of independence to liberate his country. In his formative years, Ho traveled widely as a sailor and lived in Paris, Harlem, and Boston, where he worked as a cook, baker, and did menial jobs. In his travels, he made contact with other colonized people, communists and nationalists, and saw the Vietnamese under France as part of an international system of empire.
Returning to Vietnam to expel the French colonizers and emancipate his homeland, Ho Chi Minh looked to the United States, once a colony of the British, as a model—the Vietnamese Declaration of Independence is clearly modeled on the United States Declaration—but also as a potential ally. Ho wrote numerous times to American audiences, presidents and the American people, reaching out for support. But American elites, seeing France expelled and wary of independence movements “infecting” their own colonies, decided to punish Vietnam and engaged in a decades long war of almost unthinkable violence.
During this time, while Ho Chi Minh was demonized in the United States, he continued to push the United States to respect Vietnam’s sovereignty. He passed away in 1969 at the age of 79, not living to see the eventual Vietnamese victory in 1975. In 1976, Vietnam’s capital city, Saigon, was renamed Ho Chi Minh City in his honor.
Following are Letter & Messages of Ex President Ho sent to President Harry Truman and Others from 1945 to
Vietnamese Declaration of Independence, September 2, 1945
Letter to President Harry Truman, October 17, 1945
Letter to U.S. Secretary of State, October 18, 1945
Letter to U.S. Secretary of State, October 22, 1945
Letter to Secretary of State James Byrnes, November 1, 1945
Letter to Secretary of State James Byrnes, November 23, 1945
Telegram to Secretary of State James Byrnes, November 26, 1945
Letter to U.S. President Truman, January 18, 1946
Letter to President Harry Truman, February 16, 1946
To the Governments of CHINA, UNITED STATES
OF AMERICA, UNION OF SOCIALIST SOVIET
REPUBLICS and GREAT-BRITAIN., February 18, 1946
Telegram to President Truman, February 28, 1946
Memorandum of Discussion with Ho Chi Minh, September 12, 1946
Letter to President Truman, November 8, 1945
Message to the American People, December 23, 1966
Exchange of Letters with U.S. President Lyndon B. Johnson.
He replied Pres. Richard Nixon a Letter on July 15, 1969 , then finally, President Ho died on September 2, 1969.
Letter from Pres. Richard Nixon sent to President Ho:
Dear Mr. President:
I realize that it is difficult to communicate meaningfully across the gulf of four years of war. But precisely because of this gulf, I wanted to take this opportunity to reaffirm in all solemnity my desire to work for a just peace. I deeply believe that the war in Vietnam has gone on too long and delay in bringing it to an end can benefit no one–least of all the people of Vietnam. My speech on May 14 laid out a proposal which I believe is fair to all parties. Other proposals have been made which attempt to give the people of South Vietnam an opportunity to choose their own future. These proposals take into account the reasonable conditions of all sides. But we stand ready to discuss other programs as well, specifically the 10-point program of the NLF.
As I have said repeatedly, there is nothing to be gained by waiting. Delay can only increase the dangers and multiply the suffering.
The time has come to move forward at the conference table toward an early resolution of this tragic war. You will find us forthcoming and open-minded in a common effort to bring the blessings of peace to the brave people of Vietnam. Let history record that at this critical juncture, both sides turned their face toward peace rather than toward conflict and war.
[His Excellency Ho Chi Minh, President, Democratic Republic of Vietnam, Hanoi]
Note: The President’s letter was dated July 15, 1969, and released November 3, 1969.
Letter of Pres. Ho sent to Pres R. Nixon on August 25, 1969:
President Ho Chi Minh’s reply dated August 25, 1969, was released by the White House Press Office along with the President’s letter. It read as follows:
To His Excellency Richard Milhous Nixon President of the United States Washington
I have the honor to acknowledge receipt of your letter.
The war of aggression of the United States against our people, violating our fundamental national rights, still continues in South Vietnam. The United States continues to intensify military operations, the B-52 bombings and the use of toxic chemical products multiply the crimes against the Vietnamese people. The longer the war goes on, the more it accumulates the mourning and burdens of the American people. I am extremely indignant at the losses and destructions caused by the American troops to our people and our country. I am also deeply touched at the rising toll of death of young Americans who have fallen in Vietnam by reason of the policy of American governing circles.
Our Vietnamese people are deeply devoted to peace, a real peace with independence and real freedom. They are determined to fight to the end, without fearing the sacrifices and difficulties in order to defend their country and their sacred national rights. The overall solution in 10 points of the National Liberation Front of South Vietnam and of the Provisional Revolutionary Government of the Republic of South Vietnam is a logical and reasonable basis for the settlement of the Vietnamese problem. It has earned the sympathy and support of the peoples of the world.
In your letter you have expressed the desire to act for a just peace. For this the United States must cease the war of aggression and withdraw their troops from South Vietnam, respect the right of the population of the South and of the Vietnamese nation to dispose of themselves, without foreign influence. This is the correct manner of solving the Vietnamese problem in conformity with the national rights of the Vietnamese people, the interests of the United States and the hopes for peace of the peoples of the world. This is the path that will allow the United States to get out of the war with honor.
With good will on both sides we might arrive at common efforts in view of finding a correct solution of the Vietnamese problem.
HO CHI MINH
Citation: Richard Nixon: “Letters of the President and President Ho Chi Minh of the Democratic Republic of Vietnam.,” November 3, 1969. Online by Gerhard Peters and John T. Woolley, The American Presidency Project.
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