RED CHINA REGIME VIOLATED SERIOUSLY THE HUMAN RIGHTS
TRUNG QUỐC CỘNG SẢN VI PHẠM TRẦM TRỌNG NHÂN QUYỀN?
XIN MỜI ĐỘC GIẢ ĐỌC VÀ XEM VIDEO TRONG BAI TƯỜNG TRÌNH CỦA ĐÀI VOA HÔM NAY & VÀI NGUỒN THAM KHẢO DƯỚI ĐÂY CỦA CHÚNG TÔI:
A. TRÍCH TƯỜNG TRÌNH CỦA VOA: [Một báo cáo từ Ủy ban Điều hành Quốc hội Hoa Kỳ về Trung Quốc nói rằng mặc cho ít được truyền thông quốc tế để mắt tới, chính quyền Trung Quốc trong khu vực tự trị của người Tây Tạng gần đây đang bất ổn. Bản báo cáo được đưa ra vào đầu tuần này kết luận rằng cách thức mà lực lượng an ninh Trung Quốc đối phó với các cuộc biểu tình ở quận Driru cho thấy quyết tâm mãnh liệt là bảo đảm những vụ việc tương tự được bịt kín. Ông Steve Marshall, cố vấn cấp cao của ủy ban và là giám đốc của chương trình dữ liệu về tù nhân, nói rằng nhà cầm quyền Trung Quốc xem Driru và hai quận lân cận (Sog và Drachen) là “những điểm nóng.” Ông nói:
“Trong quan điểm của họ, nếu tôi nói một cách bóng gió, là một đốm lửa ở xa. Thế nhưng họ không muốn đốm lửa ở xa đó lan rộng ra, chẳng hạn như tới Lhasa, là khu vực rất lớn và quan trọng”. Ông nói thêm rằng các cuộc biểu tình nhắc các giới chức Trung Quốc về cuộc biểu tình tháng 3 năm 2008 ở Lhasa, trong đó người Tây Tạng đã tấn công vào người Hán và tài sản của họ.
Driru là khu vực có ít nhất 4 người Tây Tạng đã tự thiêu trong vòng 2 năm qua. Tuy nhiên, Trung Quốc chưa bao giờ thừa nhận có vụ tự thiêu nào ở quận này. Ông Marshall nói rằng việc phủ nhận các vụ tự thiêu càng làm nổi bật vấn đề nhạy cảm của chính quyền Trung Quốc:
“Ðiều đó với tôi càng cho thấy mức độ nhạy cảm hơn khi họ đưa đến rất nhiều lực lượng an ninh, buộc người Tây Tạng phải tham gia vào những hoạt động thể hiện lòng yêu nước đối với Trung Quốc, bắt họ phải treo cờ Trung Quốc trên mái nhà.”
Vào tháng Tám, chính quyền khu tự trị Tây Tạng đã phát động một chiến dịch yêu nước đặc biệt ở Driru. Một tháng sau, những người dân làng bị ra lệnh phải treo lá cờ quốc gia của Trung Quốc trên mái nhà. Tuy nhiên, người dân ở ít nhất hai ngôi làng được biết đã ném những lá cờ xuống sông. Kể từ đó, xuất hiện nhiều báo cáo về các cuộc biểu tình, các vụ bắt giữ và nổ súng của cảnh sát.
Người Tây Tạng lưu vong có liên hệ mật thiết với Driru cho biết tình hình hiện vẫn căng thẳng và nhiều vụ bắt giữ vẫn đang tiếp diễn. Kể từ năm 2009, hơn 120 người Tây Tạng đã tự thiêu để yêu cầu cho phép Đức Ðạt Lai Lạt Ma trở về và để đòi tự do cho dân Tây Tạng. Hầu hết các vụ tự thiêu xảy ra ở tỉnh Sichuan.]
B. TRÍCH TƯỜNG TRÌNH CỦA CÁC NGUỒN THAM KHẢO KHÁC: [OCCUPATION OF TIBET: 1950 – the present: 1949 China: Civil War between Nationalists and Communists ends. The People’s Republic of China proclaimed. Tibet: A fully sovereign state (as stated in a report of the International Commission of Jurists, 1959) sharing a common border with China. Tibetans know themselves to be a race with a language, culture, religion, history and customs entirely distinct from the Chinese.
1950 Chinese Communists invade Tibet. Tibet’s appeal to the United Nations is rejected.
1951 Tibetans forced to agree to Chinese occupation and annexation of Tibet to China.
1953 Communist reforms imposed in eastern Tibet. Chinese begin to indoctrinate Tibetan village people against Tibetan customs and religion. 1955 Full scale revolt begins in eastern Tibet.
1956-1959 Revolts continue in the east. Eastern tribesmen move west towards Lhasa.
1959 Tibetan Uprising takes place in Lhasa on March 10. The Uprising is ruthlessly crushed. H.H. Dalai Lama is persuaded by Tibetans in Lhasa to flee. He is followed into exile by many thousands of Tibetans.
Full Communist reforms are imposed on Tibet.
The International Commission of Jurists (1959 and 1960) judge the Chinese guilty of genocide in Tibet, “the gravest crime of which any person or nation can be accused … the intent to destroy, in whole or in part, a national, ethnic, racial or religious group” and detail atrocities to which Tibetans were subjected. These include public execution by shooting, crucifixion, burning alive, drowning, vivisection, starvation, strangulation, hanging, scalding, being buried alive, disembowelling and beheading; imprisonment without trial; torture; forced labour; and forcible sterilization. Many people, including children under 15 years, disappear without trace. The United Nations condemns Chinese atrocities.
1959-1977 China closes Tibet to the outside world. Atrocities continue. During the Cultural Revolution there is wholesale destruction of significant buildings, artifacts, paintings, texts, etc. etc. Most of the monasteries, including the great monastic universities, are destroyed. China resettles large numbers of Han Chinese in Tibet. Chinese is the official language. Education is in Chinese.
1977-1986 Chinese regime in Tibet becomes more “liberal”. Tibetans may rebuild some monasteries (subject to Chinese control) and openly practise their religion (though there are many restrictions). Significant buildings and some monasteries are opened to travellers as tourist attractions.
Tibetans, now a minority in their own country, suffer discrimination and withdrawal of opportunity. Most businesses are run by Chinese. Though the Tibetan language is reinstated, all but elementary education is conducted in Chinese. There is high unemployment and poverty among ethnic Tibetans (but not Chinese). The Tibetans in Tibet are marginalized.
1987 Continued suppression of free speech in regard to politics. Tibetans may not speak on the status of Tibet, the return of the Dalai Lama, or the presence of large numbers of Chinese in Tibet. Stringent restrictions on freedom of assembly. Dissident Tibetans arrested, imprisoned and subject to interrogation and torture. Amnesty International documents mistreatment of Tibetan prisoners in China: Torture and Ill-treatment of Prisoners. Birth control is implemented by forced abortion.
September 21: H.H. the Dalai Lama introduces a Five-Point Peace Plan for Tibet at a Congressional Human Rights Caucus in Washington DC.
September 27, October 1 and October 6: Demonstrations in Lhasa against Chinese rule. Chinese react violently, firing into the crowd. Many Tibetans and some westerners are arrested. The westerners are later released. Western journalists are expelled and individual travellers and journalists are banned. Severely repressive measures are adopted. Hundreds of Tibetans are imprisoned.
October 6: In the wake of the uprising in Lhasa the U.S. Senate passes a motion to condemn Chinese actions in Tibet.
October 14: Two Foreign Affairs subcommittees of the U.S. House of Representatives hold a joint hearing on the question of human rights in Tibet; the issue is also raised in the European Parliament and the German Bundestag.
Late October: The Chinese government rejects a request by a U.S. Congressional group to send a delegation to Tibet.
China labels Tibetans who express themselves in favour of Tibetan independence as “criminals”.
1988 March 5: Massive demonstration in Lhasa against Chinese rule. This is the largest demonstration since the Tibetan Uprising of 1959. (Eyewitnesses report the number of Tibetans demonstrating as 10,000 or more.) Hundreds – perhaps thousands – are arrested. There are reports of beatings and shootings.
March 6: Foreign journalists expelled from Lhasa and all telephone links between Lhasa and Beijing said to be out of order.
Many of the Tibetans arrested are subject to prolonged detention without trial, are denied access to lawyers or family members and are mistreated. China restricts contact between Tibetans and Westerners.
June 15: Addressing the European Parliament in Strasbourg, France, H.H. the Dalai Lama proposes a specific framework for negotiations between Tibetans in exile and the Chinese regarding a peaceful solution of the Tibetan problem.
July: Beijing announces that it will alter its policy toward Tibet from “lenient to severe”. It announces that “The Government of the region must adopt a policy of merciless repression towards all rebels.”
December 10: Peaceful procession in Lhasa to mark International Human Rights Day quickly and brutally countered by Chinese authorities.
1989 March 5-7: Several initially peaceful demonstrations are violently quashed. Dozens of unarmed Tibetan demonstrators are killed and many more arbitrarily arrested in subsequent security sweeps by Chinese police and military. There are widespread reports of torture against Tibetan political prisoners, many of them monks and nuns. Several deaths are known.
March 7: Martial law imposed in Lhasa. Remains in force until 1 May 1990.
Because foreign observers have been expelled from Lhasa and the surrounding region, China’s human rights violations in Tibet go largely unreported.
1990-1993 A steady stream of young monks and nuns leave Tibet and crowd into the monastic communities of the Tibetan refugees in India, seeking freedom to study and practise their religion without Communist controls. Both monks and nuns report their experiences of arrest, imprisonment and torture in Tibet.
1991 May 1991: The United States Senate passes a resolution declaring the whole of Tibet an occupied country whose true representatives are the Dalai Lama and the Tibetan Government in exile.
June 1991: The Australian House of Representatives passes a unanimous resolution condemning human rights abuses in Tibet and calling on the Chinese government to begin negotiations with the Dalai Lama.
23 August 1991: The United Nations, responding to the violent repression of political demonstrations in Lhasa, passes a resolution criticising Chinese policies in Tibet and calling on the Chinese “to fully respect the fundamental rights and freedoms of the Tibetan people”.
November 1991: Australian Human Rights Delegation to China visits Tibet. Describes Tibet as effectively under Martial Law. It reports clear signs of anti-Chinese feeling among Tibetans. Ordinary Tibetans report lack of religious freedom and civil and political rights, lack of justice, education, employment and freedom of expression, and restrictions on movement. They fear arrest, interrogation and detention merely for conversing with foreigners. Monks speak of close surveillance. There is a large presence of military and civilian Chinese.
1992 November 1992: The second Australian Human Rights Delegation to China is denied access to Tibet. Officials in Beijing claim that the delegation’s 1991 report, which had revealed human rights abuses in Tibet, had not been received favourably by Tibetan authorities. The delegation is also informed that the Chinese Government is unhappy that the Prime Minister of Australia and the Australian Minister of Foreign Affairs and Trade had met the Dalai Lama during his visit to Australia in May 1992.
8-20 November 1992: The Permanent Tribunal of Peoples, meeting in Strasbourg, France, hears a case brought by representatives of the Tibetan People against the People’s Republic of China. The Tribunal finds that since 1950 China has continuously deprived the Tibetan people of their right to self-determination and that this violation of basic human rights has been achieved through the violation of other human rights. The European Parliament unanimously passes a resolution in support of the Tribunal’s findings and Tibetan human rights. It calls for the release of all political prisoners in Tibet and for China to allow prison visits by the International Red Cross. (See page 8 for Tribunal verdict and recommendations.)
1993 Tibetans continue to hold demonstrations against Chinese rule.
6-10 January 1993: Conference of International Lawyers on Issues Relating to Self-Determination and Independence for the Tibetan People, meeting in London, finds that Tibetans are a “people” for international law purposes and are thus entitled to the right of self-determination, but that they have been denied the right to self-determination “by reason of the act of aggression and military occupation” of the People’s Republic of China. The conference finds that contrary to international law, China has violated the human rights of the Tibetan people. The conference also finds that significant settlements of non-Tibetans from China have occurred in the traditional territory of Tibet without the free consent of the Tibetan people, that these pose a serious threat to the survival of the Tibetan people, and that such population transfers do not conform to international law. The conference considers that population transfer should cease at once. The conference makes a number of recommendations to the international community regarding China’s violation of international law in regard to Tibet. (See page 9 for a precis of findings and recommendations of this Conference of International Lawyers on Tibet.)
12 May 1993: Chinese officials hold a secret meeting in China to devise a “Final Solution for Tibet”. In an introductory address, Fan Guoqing, former Permanent Representative of China to the United Nations, tells the meeting that many nations “rallied against him” during sessions of the UN Sub-Commission on Human Rights. He concluded that in the international arena, Tibet “has become a tough issue for China”. The meeting laments China’s lack of support in UN human rights meetings and describes as “a major blunder” its failure to win over Archbishop Tutu of South Africa. Stating that the European Community has been lost to “the Dalai Camp” it proposes that China must now put its hope for support at the UN in the developing nations of Asia and Africa. The meeting resolves to solve the problem of Tibet by the following means (which, if successful, will solve “the problem” invisibly):
1. Transfer of large numbers of Chinese settlers to Tibet with the aim of making it demographically impossible for Tibetans to rise, as is the case in Inner Mongolia and Xinjiang.
2. Manipulation of renowned international figures and religious personages in Tibet for propaganda purposes. Breaking up the unity of Tibetans in exile and infiltrating the ranks of Tibetan religious figures.
1993: Tibetan tour guide Gendun Rinchen is released from prison in Lhasa following a world-wide campaign. 1993: The outcry against Beijing’s 2000 Olympics Bid rings around the world indicating increasing awareness of human rights abuses committed in Tibet and China.
Despite Chinese Government threats to impose retaliatory trade embargoes, world leaders continue to meet the Dalai Lama with increasing frequency. There are strengthening ties between the international Tibet support movement, Chinese pro-democracy and other human rights groups.
1994: United States President Bill Clinton signs into law the 1994-95 Foreign Relations Authorisation Act. Provisions in this Act build on those passed by both Houses of Congress in 1992-93 which declared Tibet an occupied country. The 1994 Bill recognises the Dalai Lama and Tibetan Government-in-Exile as the real representatives of the Tibetan people. From now on in reports to Congress, Tibet will be listed alphabetically under its own state heading. Population and Development policies have become a direct threat to the very survival of the Tibetan people. Beijing admits promoting migration of Chinese to Tibet (September 28, 1994).
President Clinton renews Most Favoured Nation trade status for China. Lodi Gyari, President of the International Campaign for Tibet (ITC), said, “The Chinese would not have dared to issue these policy pronouncements prior to the president’s MFN decision. Now they feel they have nothing to worry about — that the U.S. will turn a blind eye even if the government officially acknowledges they are increasing the population influx.” China maintains its commitment to developing Tibet and enforcing political “stability,” with the main benefits of economic developments going to Han Chinese industries and businesses, and of continuing the influx of Chinese-trained personnel.
[Bay Area Friends of Tibet, Fall 1994, Vol. 5 #4]
Chinese authorities ordered all Tibetan Communist Party members and officials who have sent their children for study to schools and institutes outside Tibet, run by the Tibetan government-in-exile, to recall them before December 27, 1994…The Chinese authorities have not only failed to provide quality education in Tibet, but are now curtailing the opportunity of those students who have, after taking all risks, travelled outside Tibet for education. The action also reveals the policy of discrimination being implemented by the Chinese authorities. Since the opening up of China to the outside world, thousands of Chinese students have gone, and are continuing to go, to the West for studies. Among these students are children of senior Chinese leaders. The human rights group Amnesty International criticized China for giving stiff sentences to five independence activists. The Tibetans were given prison sentences from 12 to 15 years on charges described by government authorities as counter-revolutionary sabotage…The convictions are part of a renewed crackdown on dissent in Tibet and are totally disproportionate to the crime the five allegedly committed…According to Tibet Television, the defendants put up posters containing Tibetan independence slogans, and removed the nameplate from a government building and then smashed it to indicate they were overthrowing the local government.
1995: International Campaign for Tibetan representation at the 4th United Nations World Conference on Women in Beijing
For further information on the Tibetan Womens movement and the situation in Tibet for women.]
NGUÔN THAM KHAO LIÊN HỆ/RELATED SOURCES: