FROM THE INDIVIDUAL BANKRUPTCY TO THE CITY ONE

TỪ PHÁ SẢN CỦA CÁ NHÂN, ĐẾN ĐÔ THỊ TRONG NỀN KINH TẾ SUY THOÁI
(Tùy Bút phiếm luận, kinh tế, xã hội)
Từ Phạm Vi Cá Nhân, một Gia Đình sang đến một Thành Phố:
Tình trạng Phá Sản có thể đi từ cấp độ Cá Nhân, đến một Thành Phố hay một Đô Thị, sang đến một Cộng Đồng hay Khu Vực. Thoạt tiên một cá nhân trở nên thất nghiệp, không đủ lợi tức để trà Ngân Hàng tiền nợ hàng tháng căn nhà và chiếc xe của mình. Do đó Ngân Hàng phải khởi tố Cá Nhán hay Gia Đình đó trước Tòa Án. Tại Mỹ, luật Phá Sản có mục đích giải quyết những vụ Phá Sản của Cá Nhân & Gia Đình này, bằng cách Gia Đình đó nhờ Luật Sự chuyên môn về Phá Sản, với một Khế Ước, chi phí chừng $3,000-$5,000., thường là trong 2 dạng phá sản, Chapter 7 & Chapter 13. (Xin xem chi tiết trong phần Tham Khảo về Luật Phá Sản này). Tuy nhiên, cá nhân khai phá sản sẽ mang một thành tích xấu trong sinh hoạt Tín Dụng 7 năm và khó có thể vay mượn của bất cứ Ngân Hàng nào, dù khi đã có việc làm, lúc Nền Kinh Tế phục hồi hay cất cánh trở lại.
Nói về thời kỳ Kinh Tế Mỹ suy sụp 2008-2013/15 hiện nay thì con số Thất Nghiệp hàng triệu người đã khiến nhiều thị xã nhỏ, đô thị lớn cũng đang rơi vào tình trạng phá sản. Trị trấn Detroit của Mỹ hiện đang khai phá sản. Trước đây cũng đã có nhiều thành phố đã khai phá sản. Lý do là vì Ban Quản Trị Thành Phố không đủ Ngân Khoản để chi tiêu trong những Sinh Hoạt Kinh Tế, Giáo Dục, An Ninh, Chuyển Vận, Nhân Viên, cũng như những Chi Phí cơ bản của Thành Phố, nhất là Ngần Khoản Trung Ương cũng cắt sén. Vì Dân Số Thất Nghiệp cao, nhiều Nhà Cửa bỏ trồng, Họ tìm về những Nơi Nhà Rẻ, như Loại Mobile Homes, hay những Khu Chung Cư Rẻ cho Người Nghèo, vì Trợ Cấp Thất Nghiệp hay Xã Hội chỉ đủ cho Việc Ăn Uống cơ bản mà thôi. Tình trạng đại khái chung chung là vậy.
Ai Chịu Trách Nhiệm Khi Nền Kinh Tế Thịnh Vượng & Suy Sụp?
Lẽ dĩ nhiên là Chính Quyền, từ địa phương đến Liên Bang/Trung Ương và cũng do Chính Quyền bất lực, cho nên trong những kỳ Bầu Cử, số phiếu của Quần Chúng (Cử Tri) phải bỏ cho Đàng Phái có tài năng nổi lên trong Quần Chúng, như Mỹ hay các Nước Dân Chủ Tây Phương. Ở các Nước CS hay XHCN, hoặc Độc Tài, thì Người Dân vô vọng, vì không Ai thay đổi được Đảng cầm quyền, nhất là khi Họ tham quyền cố vị, như TQCS, BHCS, VNCS, Cuba CS, hay Miến Điện, Lybia, Ai Cập, Syria, Yemen, tức một sốt Nước ở Á Châu, Nam Á, Trung Đông và Bắc Phi, vv..
Nạn Phá Sản của Các Đô Thị Hoa Kỳ Gần Đây của Hoa Kỳ, nhất là đô thị Detroit cho chúng ta một Điển Hình của sự Phá Sản Thành Phố. Chúng ta tưởng tượng khi Kinh Tế suy thoái trầm trọng, hàng triệu công dân mất việc làm, chỉ đủ tiền ăn uống, sẽ di chuyển đến các Khu Dành Cho Người Nghèo, hay Nước Nghèo, vv.. thì Hoàn Cảnh Chung sẻ thê thảm như thế nào?
Những Lý Do nào đã khiến một Cộng Đồng rơi vào tình trạng Phá Sản? Đối với Cá Nhân hay lãnh vực Gia Đình, thì Thói Quen Ăn Tiêu Tiền Bạc thiếu kiềm soát, thiếu dành dụm, các Cụ thường nói Bóc Ngắn Cắn Dài? Vong Thân Trong Vật Chất quá chớn và Thiếu Trung Dung trong cách Chi Tiêu của Cá Nhân hay Gia Đình đó. Phần ở cấp Chính Quyền Liên Bang và Địa Phương, Tài Quản Trị Tài Chánh & Kinh Tế yếu kém, thiếu những Dự Á nphòng ngừa, Chính Sách Ngoại Thương và các Dụ Án Kinh Tế Sản Xuất trong Nước thiếu quy hoạch chính xác, không đủ Công Việc cho Quần Chúng địa phương, nhất là Công Quỹ bị khiếm hụt, có khi rơi vào tình trạng Tham Nhũng trong Công Quyền, v.v.. Chúng tôi xin Trích Đoạn một số những lý do bằng Anh ngữ sau để cùng tham khảo:
Trích Đoạn A: [$2tn debt crisis threatens to bring down 100 US cities – đây là Tin Tức phổ biến trong website Báo mạng Guardian của Anh quốc: http://www.guardian.co.uk/business/2010/dec/20/debt-crisis-threatens-us-cities
Overdrawn American cities could face financial collapse in 2011, defaulting on hundreds of billions of dollars of borrowings and derailing the US economic recovery. Nor are European cities safe – Florence, Barcelona, Madrid, Venice: all are in trouble.
Shuttered homes and businesses in downtown Detroit, Michigan. American cities and states have debts that could be as high as $2tn. Photograph: Spencer Platt/Getty Images. More than 100 American cities could go bust next year as the debt crisis that has taken down banks and countries threatens next to spark a municipal meltdown, a leading analyst has warned.
Meredith Whitney, the US research analyst who correctly predicted the global credit crunch, described local and state debt as the biggest problem facing the US economy, and one that could derail its recovery.
“Next to housing this is the single most important issue in the US and certainly the biggest threat to the US economy,” Whitney told the CBS 60 Minutes programme on Sunday night.
“There’s not a doubt on my mind that you will see a spate of municipal bond defaults. You can see fifty to a hundred sizeable defaults – more. This will amount to hundreds of billions of dollars’ worth of defaults.”
Trích Đoạn B: [New Jersey governor Chris Christie summarised the problem succinctly: “We spent too much on everything. We spent money we didn’t have. We borrowed money just crazily. The credit card’s maxed out, and it’s over. We now have to get to the business of climbing out of the hole. We’ve been digging it for a decade or more. We’ve got to climb now, and a climb is harder.”
Trích Đoạn C: [American cities and states have debts in total of as much as $2tn. In Europe, local and regional government borrowing is expected to reach a historical peak of nearly €1.3tn (£1.1tn) this year.
Cities from Detroit to Madrid are struggling to pay creditors, including providers of basic services such as street cleaning. Last week, Moody’s ratings agency warned about a possible downgrade for the cities of Florence and Barcelona and cut the rating of the Basque country in northern Spain. Lisbon was downgraded by rival agency Standard & Poor’s earlier this year, while the borrowings of Naples and Budapest are on the brink of junk status. Istanbul’s debt has already been downgraded to junk.]
Whitney’s intervention is likely to raise the profile of the issue of municipal debt. While she was an analyst at Oppenheimer, the New York investment bank, in October 2007 she wrote a damning report on Citigroup, then the world’s largest bank, predicting it would cut its dividend. She was criticised for being too pessimistic but was vindicated when the bank was forced to seek government support a year later. She has since set up her own advisory firm and is rated one of the most influential women in American business.
US states have spent nearly half a trillion dollars more than they have collected in taxes, and face a $1tn hole in their pension funds, said the CBS programme, apocalyptically titled The Day of Reckoning.
Detroit is cutting police, lighting, road repairs and cleaning services affecting as much as 20% of the population. The city, which has been on the skids for almost two decades with the decline of the US auto industry, does not generate enough wealth to maintain services for its 900,000 inhabitants.
The nearby state of Illinois has spent twice as much money as it has collected and is about six months behind on creditor payments. The University of Illinois alone is owed $400m, the CBS programme said. The state has a 21% chances of default, more than any other, according to CMA Datavision, a derivatives information provider.
California has raised state university tuition fees by 32%. Arizona has sold its state capitol and supreme court buildings to investors, and leases them back.
Potential defaults could also hit Florida, whose booming real estate industry burst two years ago, said Guy J. Benstead, a partner at Cedar Ridge Partners in San Francisco. “We are not out of the woods by any stretch yet,” he said.
“It’s all part of the same parcel: public sector indebtedness needs to be cut, it needs a lot of austerity, and it hit the central governments first, and now is hitting local bodies,” said Philip Brown, managing director at Citigroup in London.
In Europe, where cities have traditionally relied more on bank loans and state transfers than bonds, financing habits are changing. The Spanish regions of Catalonia and Valencia have issued debt to their own citizens after financial markets shut their doors because of the regions’ high deficits. Moody’s cut to the rating of the Basque country on Friday left it still within investment grade but noted “the rapid deterioration in the region’s budgetary performance in recent years”. It said it expected it to continue over the medium term.
In Italy, Moody’s and S&P have threatened to downgrade Florence, while Venice has been forced over the past few months to put some of the palazzi on its canals up for sale to fund the deficit.
“Cities are on their own. Governments won’t come to their rescue as they have problems of their own,” said Andres Rodriguez-Pose, professor of economic geography at the London School of Economics. “Cities will have to pay for their debts, and in some cases they will have to carry out dramatic cuts, such as Detroit’s.”
Vallejo, a former US navy town near San Francisco, is still trying to emerge from the Chapter Nine bankruptcy protection it entered in 2008.
The city, now a symbol of distressed local finances, is still negotiating with the unions, which refused to accept a salary cut plan two years ago. Paul Dyson, an analyst with the Standard & Poor’s credit agency, said Vallejo, which is mostly a dormitory town for Oakland or San Francisco employees, did not have enough local industry to sustain its finances and property tax – a major source of local income – plunged with the collapse of the real estate market. The S&P credit-rating agency has a C rating on the town – the lowest level.
With a population of about 120,000, Vallejo has $195m (£125m) of unfunded pension obligations and has to present a bankruptcy-exit plan to a Sacramento court by 18 January. Since 1937, 619 local US government bodies, mostly small utilities or districts, have filed for bankruptcy, Bloomberg News recently reported. US cities tend to default more than European municipalities as they usually rely on bonds issued to investors, which enter into a default if the creditor misses payments. European towns, by contrast, traditionally depend on bank loans and government bailouts.

ain article: History of bankruptcy law
In Ancient Greece, bankruptcy did not exist. If a man owed and he could not pay, he and his wife, children or servants were forced into “debt slavery”, until the creditor recouped losses through their physical labour. Many city-states in ancient Greece limited debt slavery to a period of five years; debt slaves had protection of life and limb, which regular slaves did not enjoy. However, servants of the debtor could be retained beyond that deadline by the creditor and were often forced to serve their new lord for a lifetime, usually under significantly harsher conditions. An exception to this rule was Athens, which by the laws of Solon forbade enslavement for debt; as a consequence, most Athenian slaves were foreigners (Greek or otherwise).]
Trích Đoạn D: [Detroit has become the largest US city ever to file for bankruptcy, with debts of at least $15bn (£10bn). The city, once a symbol of US industrial power, is seeking protection from creditors who include public-sector workers and their pension funds. Detroit has faced decades of problems linked to the decline of its industry.
The BBC’s Jonny Dymond in Washington says public services are in a state of near collapse and around 70,000 properties lie abandoned. However, Mayor Dave Bing has vowed that public services will keep running and wages for public workers will be paid.
On Thursday, Michigan state-appointed emergency manager Kevyn Orr asked a federal judge to place the city into bankruptcy protection. If it is approved, he would be allowed to liquidate city assets to satisfy creditors and pensions. Detroit – known as Motor City for its once-thriving automobile industry – stopped unsecured-debt payments last month to keep the city running as Mr Orr negotiated with creditors.]
Trích Đoạn E: [Jonny Dymond -Washington correspondent: Detroit’s fall is complete. It is a depressing, if inevitable, end to a grotesque saga of decline, corruption and mismanagement. The irony is that the bankruptcy comes just as the private sector is picking up in Motor City. There is a buzz downtown, with commercial and residential occupancy at record levels. But public services are in a state of near collapse. Around 70,000 properties lie abandoned. Great swathes of the city need to be written off. For some, the announcement will come as some kind of relief. When I was last there business leaders told me that some kind of decision had to be taken about the city’s future – that agonising limbo was unsustainable. The problem now is not just image. Bankruptcy looks bad. But Detroit is already a poster child for urban failure. Nor is it just about being locked out of capital markets – few would lend to the city anyway. But bankruptcy could take years to sort out, when Detroit’s real world problems need urgent remedies.]
Tạm Kết Luận:
Chúng tôi tạm kết luận nơi đây Chủ Đề Phá Sản và ước mong rằng mọi Cá Nhân, mọi Gia Đình và các cấp Lãnh Đạo Chính Quyền Cộng Đồng nên suy luận, phân tách những Nguyên Nhân Căn Bản về sự Suy Thoái Tiến Vống Liếng Cá Nhân hay Gia Đình mình, Khu Vực Mình và Quốc Gia Minh đề nhận định rõ ràng những Ưu và Khuyết Điểm Chính Sách Chi Tiêu của phần Mình trong Đời Sống Vật Chất, trước khi rơi vào Sự Tụt Hậu về Kinh Tế và Xã Hội, đưa đến trình trạng Phá Sản của chúng ta tương lai.
Tran, Vanson – 7/2013
NGUỒN THAM KHẢO CHO BÀI VIẾT:
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-23369573
http://www.neurope.eu/article/court-allows-us-town-declare-bankruptcy‎
http://www.neurope.eu/…/detroit-emergency-manager-files-largest-municipal-ban…
http://www.nbclosangeles.com/news/national-international‎
http://www.newsdaily.com/…/detroit-becomes-largest-us-city-to-file-for-bankrupt…
http://www.nbcphiladelphia.com/news/national-international‎
http://www.guardian.co.uk
http://www.city-data.com
http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-us-canada-21997802
http://www.legalzoom.com/Bankruptcy
http://www.spiegel.de
http://www.cnbc.com/id/100817728‎
http://www.globalresearch.ca/american-cities-going-bankrupt/31980

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